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The authors expect that the English version completed it based on comments from local govern- would heighten interest in the programme in Japan ment officials.
and the Asia Pacific. It started out in as a pilot project and public interest in tabunka kyosei or intercultural targeting 11 European cities, but has grown into a cohesion has increased. Although such interest may network of more than cities in Europe and beyond have somewhat declined due to the COVID pan- today. From Japan, the City of Hamamatsu became demic, intercultural cohesion is now a fundamental the first to participate in the network, and the City of issue for any local government in Japan in order to Kobe is currently preparing to enter the programme build a sustainable community in the face of popu- as well.
As elsewhere in the world, Japanese society lation decline and societal aging which are likely to has always been diverse but the face of diversity is continue over the next few decades. The authors hope changing now and Japanese local authorities, being this publication will be helpful to many people who the level of government with the most experience are interested in intercultural cohesion.
and proximity, are increasingly playing an important The publication of this booklet in Japanese and role in integration of foreign residents.
English, as a project commemorating the 25th anni- Since visiting two member cities of the programme versary of Japan becoming an observer state to the in Switzerland and Italy in , and participating Council of Europe in , was made possible through in seminars and field visits held in European cities the cooperation of the Council of Europe, the Ministry during his sabbatical year in , Prof. Yamawaki of Foreign Affairs of Japan, and local governments and Keizo, one of the two authors of this booklet, has other organizations that have been working hard to been involved in policy exchange between European, develop intercultural cohesion and intercultural cit- Australian, Korean and Japanese cities.
Ueno Takahiko, ies in Japan. In particular, the authors would like to the other author, has been, focusing on local initiatives express their special gratitude to Ms. Irena Guidikova in Barcelona and other intercultural cities in Spain and Ms. Saito Chihiro since , and has conducted surveys and research and Mr. Both Affairs, Mr. Hara Hideki and Ms. Harada Erina of the authors have been amazed at the way each member Japan Foundation, the International Affairs Division city, based on the concept of living together in diver- of Hamamatsu City, Mr.
Nakai Manabu and Mr. Asai sity, has been further promoting the integration and Yutaka of the International Division of Kobe City, the inclusion initiatives, while at the same time creating Council of Local Authorities for International Relations an active network where diverse cities from differ- CLAIR and Professor Bob White of the University of ent countries, distinct historical backgrounds, and Montreal for their cooperation. different population sizes share their experiences and knowledge, and they have been pondering the possibilities of connecting this network to intercultural 1.
Council of Europe. Hereafter, it will be Intercultural Cities Programme by the Council of cited as ICC Step by Step. Most citi- a mirror reflecting the diversity of society. Cities are zens regard diversity as a resource, not as a problem, places where intercultural dynamics challenge the and accept that all cultures change as they encounter boundaries of social categories and norms.
Urban each other in the public arena. The city officials pub- diversity is a source of new ideas and values which licly advocate respect for diversity and a pluralistic emerge from the contact between people of different city identity.
The city actively combats prejudice and origins, backgrounds, languages and ways of think- discrimination and ensures equal opportunities for all ing.
However, prejudices, bias, or tensions in diverse by adapting its governance structures, institutions and social settings can lead to segregation, discrimination, services to the needs of a diverse population, while conflicts and other social problems.
Therefore, local upholding the principles of human rights, democracy authorities must adopt adequate policies to manage and the rule of law. In partnership with business, civil diversity in a way that it becomes an asset for the society and public service professionals, the intercul- society as a whole. tural city develops a range of policies and actions to encourage more mixing and interaction between The Intercultural Cities Programme ICC is an excellent diverse groups.
The high level of trust and social cohe- source of continuous improvement and innovation sion help to prevent conflicts and violence, increase in this policy area. It is a programme that regards policy effectiveness and make the city attractive for cultural diversity brought by migrants and minorities people and investors alike. Four types of integration policy for cities and all their residents.
its inception was triggered by the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue and the publication of 2. Currently, cities4 in that will eventually return to their countries of origin. Europe and abroad that are in agreement with its Therefore, measures are taken to minimise impacts of principles are participating in the programme. An migrants on the local community in the short term. intercultural city is defined as follows: Such policies aim to guarantee the economic rights of migrants, disregarding social, cultural or civic rights.
The Council of Europe is a pan-European organization with 47 2. Japan has had observer Migrants and minorities are accepted as permanent status since , and is the only participating Asian country. residents, but they are expected to assimilate as soon 3. Differences from the cultural norms of the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers to member the host community are discouraged and repressed states on intercultural integration, the Intercultural Cities programme has become a long-standing Council of Europe if seen as a threat to social cohesion.
Such policies programme, implemented with structural funding from the aim to guarantee the economic rights, as well as Council of Europe alone. the social and civil rights of migrants, disregarding 4. As of March 1, Participating cities include some of the cultural rights. ICC Step by Step, p. Such policies aim to guarantee tion was used.
the economic, social, and civil rights of migrants, as well as the cultural rights of migrants. Yet, an over- The Council of Europe has identified four general emphasis on differences could make citizens evolve categories or types of migrant policy. So where in parallel groups whose identities cannot intersect. does tabunka kyosei fit in those categories? If, Migrants and minorities participate in equality of on the other hand, you ignore cultural differences rights and opportunities with local residents into an with a focus on equality and emphasise building interactive process of integration based upon mutual equal relations, it is easy to fall into the model of willingness to adapt to and integrated into the diverse assimilationism.
However, tabunka kyosei can also fabric of the society. be defined as interculturalism, since it encourages While the right to the differences is guaranteed by laws local officials and residents to work together to and institutions, policies, institutions, and activities find a balance between diversity and equality, that create shared viewpoints, mutual understand- and places an emphasis on meaningful interaction ing and empathy are highly valued.
In addition to between individuals and groups to live together. guaranteeing the economic, social, civil and cultural This would mean an evolution of tabunka kyosei rights of migrants, such policies aim at the inclusion from a means of local internationalisation to com- of migrants and minorities by promoting meaningful munity development.
interaction among residents and addressing common In fact, the City of Hamamatsu, which joined the community issues. As socio-economic disadvantage of 3. Three principles of Interculturalism migrant population and their alienation from main- stream society continued, and as criticism of multi- There are three basic principles of interculturalism: culturalism in particular grew, since they were seen equality, diversity, and interaction.
However, focusing only on equality an advantage for the whole society. could invite conflict between minority groups over limited resources, obscure inequality within these Column — Intercultural cohesion and groups, and undermine solidarity and cohesion. the local level and positioned tabunka kyosei as a pillar of local internationalisation.
According to 3. This explanation of the three principles is based on ICC Step French riots, etc. by Step, p. However, focusing National Members: 75 cities , and members that have solely on diversity will undermine the sense of shared undergone policy assessments by the Intercultural values and make it difficult to bring together the cities index ICC-Index 13 cities. diverse groups in a society. Currently, there are national networks in Italy 28 cities, including three international members , Morocco 11 3.
It is creating conditions for every- international member , Spain 20 cities, two interna- day encounters across cultural differences, as well as tional members , Ukraine six cities, one international gender, age, socio-economic status, and other differ- member , and the United Kingdom eight cities, seven ences. However, without accompanying measures to international members.
Some countries have devel- ensure equality and accept diversity, creating mixed oped domestic networks for small cities that find neighbourhoods, schools, organisations and public it difficult to participate in field-visit programmes spaces can be counterproductive and result in creat- and seminars that require foreign language ability.
ing new prejudices and discrimination. As mentioned in the above, the ICC programme began in as a pilot programme of the Council of Europe, with funding by the European Commission, targeting 5. Outline of the programme 11 European cities. The countries to which those pilot cit- mutual inspection visits between member cities, ies belong include not only Germany, France, and the holding of seminars on related topics and the the Netherlands, which have extensive experience testing of innovative policy ideas and tools8.
in migrant integration, but also Italy and Greece, Amid the COVID pandemic in , the ICC organ- which only began admitting migrants in earnest ised online activities. It organised conferences on in the s, or Ukraine with its unique ethnic, lin- measures to cope with the pandemic, seminars on guistic, and religious diversity.
However, even cities gentrification, building cities that will include refu- from these countries, with different circumstances gees, the discriminatory aspects of AI use, and institu- regarding migrant and minority populations, have tional discrimination. It also held the annual meeting many commonalities in their experience with diverse of ICC coordinators online in November. The programme quickly became a forum where local governments, NGOs, and researchers It has also developed the ICC Index to evaluate the from around the world could exchange views and policies of each city and to make inter-city comparison seek out new approaches.
As of December , 88 cities have received policy assessments using the index, which consists After becoming a stand-alone programme of the of 73 questions9 covering 11 policy areas, including Council of Europe in , the ICC has continued to education, business, and language.
However, the expand its circle of participating cities. For example, objective of the ICC Index lies not in competition in North America, Montreal in Quebec, Canada, which among cities, but in mutual learning among them. Minnesota, in the United States, joined. Tools include the intercultural citizenship test, pol- In Asia, Hamamatsu became the first city to join in icy briefs, the social trust barometer, and antirumours.
Also, from Japan, Kobe is preparing to become For the Intercultural Cities Resource Pack, please a member. The Australian cities of Ballarat, Melton, 9 The current questionnaire was revised in to take more and Maribyrnong in Victoria have also joined.
account of intersectionality of language, religion, and sexual orientation see Glossary of Key Terms , as well as nationality As of March , there are member cities, and ethnicity. Since he was then an advisor to the Council of Municipalities with a Large Foreign Population, which is known for its annual meeting of mayors, on his way back to Japan, Yamawaki made a proposal to the Japan Foundation official to hold an intercultural city summit with the participation of local government leaders from Japan, South Korea, and Europe.
The programme and Japan At the seminar the mayor of Arakawa City, who attended the program in Switzerland and As Japan is an observer state of the Council of Europe, Italy and the mayor of Shinjuku City as well as the exchange has been actively carried out through deputy mayor of Ota City spoke.
Next, in August the Japan Foundation since , such as sending , Ms. Irena Guidikova, an ICC representative Japanese local government officials to Europe and from the Council of Europe, was invited to an inviting European city officials to Japan. International Symposium on Intercultural Cities The ICC was introduced to Japan in full scale at the in Seoul, co-hosted with the Korean Association Asia-Europe International Symposium on Intercultural for Multicultural Studies originally scheduled to be Cities in The first summit, co-hosted by the Japan held in March , but postponed due to the Great East Japan Earthquake , and to a closed workshop Foundation and the Council of Europe, was held in held in Tokyo on intercultural cities for local Tokyo in January Participating cities were: Hamamatsu and participate in the first summit in January and the Tokyo cities of Ota and Shinjuku Japan ; Suwon, to host the second summit in October Seodaemun Seoul , and Ansan South Korea ; and from Europe, Lisbon Portugal , Botkyrka Sweden , Hamamatsu Mayor Suzuki Yasutomo, who partici- and Reggio Emilia Italy.
To that end, we will Relations CLAIR , and the Council of Europe. seek answers to our common challenges. And that As before, the Japanese participants were the three the ultimate goal of intercultural cities should be to mayors from Hamamatsu, Ota, and Shinjuku, and bring individuals of different cultural backgrounds the deputy mayor of Higashi Osaka. See the Japan Foundation website for an overview of the See the city of Hamamatsu website for an overview of the first summit.
At the panel discussion on the theme of intercultural cohesion, the mayor of Botkyrka Sweden and the deputy mayor of Ballarat Australia exchanged opinions with Hamamatsu Mayor Suzuki, with an ICC expert Phil Wood serving as commentator, and Yamawaki as moderator. However, it was Korea.
At that time, Mayor Suzuki received inclusive society. Hamamatsu was the first a law that promotes migrant integration and Japanese city and the first Asian city to join the ICC. therefore the intercultural cohesion initiatives of In December , the Intercultural City Seminar was local governments across the country are still very held in Tokyo hosted by the Council of Municipalities uneven.
with a Large Foreign Population with support from the REFERENCE: Japan Foundation, and about 40 local government officials from all over Japan attended the meeting. Yamawaki, K. tations were made by city officials from Ballarat and Melton as well as an ICC expert Lynda Ford. Creating an intercultural vision Written and oral statements by city leaders, declara- tions by city councils, and policy documents are the In order to create an intercultural city, leaders need primary means of expressing a commitment to diver- to think in new ways about diversity.
They must think sity and inclusion. These commitments need to be about how to create a society where diverse people made as visible and public as possible and repeated, and groups can interact and work together. Then, especially at citywide events, such as festivals and they must consider what leaders and citizens need public celebrations. to do and what kind of institutions, networks, and physical infrastructure are required.
of the city as an intercultural city. Then, in October It is important to revisit the existing policies from a , after a ceremony where the mayor signed new perspective, i. eliminating redundancy, and encouraging cooperation The mayor set up a story reading session in English may lead to budget savings and greater efficiency. and Vietnamese, and emphasized the importance of diversity and inclusion.
The city also produced In an intercultural city, fostering cultural sensitivity a storytelling booklet that explains what an and intercultural exchange are not considered to be intercultural city is in simple terms.
the responsibility of a specific department or person in a government office, but instead as goals that all departments will strategically incorporate into their 1. In other words, mem- advantage bership in the ICC will enable a city to strengthen the intercultural cohesion measures that had been culti- Communication to society and public debate are vated by its international affairs and other divisions, essential to creating awareness towards respect for as well as address previously intractable problems, diversity.
In order for the vision of an intercultural by sharing awareness of them among many staff and city to be endorsed by residents, it must be widely civic groups across departmental boundaries. recognised that diversity is an asset to the city. And Two elements are important for creating an inter- in order to build social cohesion, the elimination of cultural vision.
unfounded prejudices against minorities must be undertaken. Toward this end, leaders need to act 1. We can- prevail among the general public. not create an intercultural city without leaders who respect diversity. It takes courage to take up dialogue Public outreach regarding diversity is a daunting with voters who have feelings of fear and prejudices task and the results are difficult to assess.
Lack of against migrants, and try to convince people while knowledge about the facts of diversity in the city, promoting intercultural policies.
However, leaders the expression of exclusionary and racist views in who are able to take political risks and present a vision public spaces and media, and false information and for the future of their society will in the end gain the misperceptions can undermine the integration of support and appreciation of the public.
new inhabitants and the solidarity of the community. However, even if that portion of the population who blatantly discriminate change their behav- iour, the unconscious prejudices and negative stereotypes about nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, sexual orientation, etc.
And when some incident occurs, an infectious disease spreads, or a recession hits, the tendency to simply lump people who are even slightly different from yourself into the same category and attack them becomes unstoppable. One of the ways to prevent such problems is the Antirumours Strategy, which was created in Barcelona, Spain in and is now spreading in Diversity awareness campaigns need to be part of a many intercultural cities.
to come up with humorous ways to refute them. Strategy is not a cure-all, but it can bring a catalytic Hamamatsu also launched its own Hamamatsu change to help local governments respect diversity Intercultural Month in , as well as Awards for while getting more public participation.
The city of Intercultural Cohesion Activities in Barcelona, for example, is using issues that came Action aimed at raising awareness of diversity to light through the Antirumours Strategy, such as is also spreading.
Mie Prefecture formulated its housing discrimination or media representations of Diversity Promotion Policy in , and the follow- minorities, to improve its intercultural policies. For ing year distributed a colourful booklet presenting more detailed information on how the Antirumours the policy in an easy-to-understand format to cities Strategy is implemented and examples of how cit- and towns in the prefecture, and also published ies are implementing it, please refer to Antirumours a leaflet that outlines the plan in six languages.
Handbook available also in Japanese. its website and other means in and around the city. Intercultural cities in Japan 2. Hamamatsu is home to multinational corporations such as Honda, Yamaha, and Suzuki, and the city has a history of receiving business persons and engineers from overseas. In , the Hamamatsu International Exchange Association was established within the Hamamatsu Chamber of Commerce and Industry. In the first half of the s, Science and Technology MEXT conducted a information on daily life and local administration nationwide survey on the school attendance was provided in Portuguese.
The results Board of Education opened a consultation office showed that about 20, foreign children either for overseas and returnee children in , and in might not be attending school or their attendance , the Council for the Promotion of Education for status could not be confirmed.
In fact, it has been International Understanding, and the Subcommittee pointed out since the early s that school refusal for the Education of Foreign Pupils and Students of foreign children is a serious problem in the was set up. These efforts were well-received, and in municipalities that have many foreign residents.
Ministry of Home Affairs the same year. In addition, a Canarinho Classroom was estab- lished in three locations in the city to teach Brazilian Participation in the intercultural city summits children who do not attend school in Portuguese. In addition, the city called upon other local govern- Suzuki Yasutomo, who took office as Mayor of ments to focus on inter-city cooperation and set up Hamamatsu in May , further promoted coop- the Council of Municipalities with a Large Foreign eration with other cities in Japan and abroad Population in In , Hamamatsu joined the through the Council of Municipalities with a Large International Union of Local Authorities IULA to Foreign Population and the United Cities and Local promote international city collaboration.
Governments UCLG. At the end of this summit, Hamamatsu formulated the Intercultural City Vision The Tokyo Declaration for Cooperation among incorporating the standpoint of local development Intercultural Cities was adopted. It also took the initiative to diversity to foster dynamism, innovation, creativity reform the Council of Municipalities with a Large and growth.
To that end, we will seek to establish a Foreign Population in April At that time, Mayor Suzuki received the world. We will transmit knowledge and results a request from the Council of Europe to become a obtained through cooperation with cities both inside member of the ICC, and started considering joining.
October , the city of Hamamatsu and the Japan Thus, Hamamatsu was the first city in Asia to adopt Foundation co-hosted an international conference interculturalism in its planning. Hamamatsu was the first and an ICC expert Phil Wood, who visited Japan for Japanese and the first Asian city to join the ICC.
the aforementioned conference held in Hamamatsu in October , met key persons in the related organ- In March , the city formulated the 2nd Hamamatsu isations in Hamamatsu, publishing their findings as Intercultural City Vision — cultural policy page In December , the Intercultural City Seminar First of all, the ICC Index gave high marks in the areas was held at the headquarters of the Council of Local of commitment, neighbourhood, culture and civil Authorities for International Relations CLAIR in Tokyo life, and international outlook policies.
Based by Yamawaki, the seminar venue was connected to on these advanced features, it was recommended Australia via Zoom and the presentations were made that, as the first intercultural city in Japan, Hamamatsu by officials from Ballarat and Melton, two Australian should collaborate with other cities to call upon the member cities of the ICC, and an Australian ICC expert Japanese government to initiate a nationwide dis- Lynda Ford.
There were also presentations by offi- cussion on depopulation, migration, and diversity. to the ICC seminar held in Geneva the same year. In Japan Foundation and the United Cities and Local the former area, the city regularly conducts surveys Governments Asia Pacific UCLG ASPAC co-hosted on the actual situation of foreign residents, includes the International Summit on Intercity Collaboration in intercultural cohesion in the training of new staff, and Hamamatsu.
At the panel discussion on the theme of provides opportunities for training in foreign coun- intercultural cohesion, the mayor of Botkyrka, Sweden, tries.
Portuguese in the event of a disaster, was also highly rated. A recommendation was made to take advan- tage of ICC membership to establish opportunities for the staff to gain experience in ICC member cities abroad and improve their foreign language abilities. Areas receiving an average rating were education, public space, and media. Perhaps many readers may find this surprising, since school education is one of the areas that Hamamatsu has focused on the most, with efforts such as Operation Zero School Non-attendance.
One of the reasons why education received an intermediate rating is that there are few teachers with foreign backgrounds. The recommenda- tions also emphasised the importance of increasing ICC index evaluation of Hamamatsu the number of foreign-born citizens with diverse talents who can serve as role models and publicizing For Japanese local governments, the greatest ben- their presence to society. efit of ICC membership may be that they are able to review their own initiatives from an international The areas with low marks were public service, business perspective.
At the time it joined the ICC, Hamamatsu and labour, mediation and conflict resolution, lan- underwent an evaluation under the ICC Index, the guage, governance, and anti-discrimination. Business results of which were published in September and labour and governance were rated the lowest. The latter is due to the fact that there are no city council members with foreign backgrounds. With regard to anti-discrimination, it is recommended that efforts be made to prevent discrimination at the local government level, even though anti-discrimination legislation is not yet fully developed at the national level.
As for business, it also mentioned local businesses to establish a charter to promote diversity and inclusion and also encourage business from ethnic minorities to move beyond the ethnic economy and enter the mainstream economy. long-term strategies that diverse staff, including those in charge of intercultural cohesion, have first-hand 2.
In addition, there are universities in Kobe its identity and strength as a city both at home and that have centres for international commerce and abroad. However, in recent years, Kobe has been suf- foreign language education, EU research, and East fering from a declining population and the intensify- Asian studies, as well as public high schools that ing competition with cities in the Asia-Pacific region.
focus on global issues. It may be useful for the city In this situation, adding intercultural perspectives to to collaborate with these institutions. Kobe is known for its grassroots activi- competitiveness as a city. ties by associations of residents with diverse ethnic The ICC-Index is useful for such pursuits. The ICC-Index backgrounds, such as Koreans, Vietnamese, and Latin report reveals that while Kobe is highly regarded Americans and by local schools.
The challenge for the for its cultivation of internationalization efforts and city may be to build long-lasting mechanisms that multilingual services as an international city, it lacks respect and support them. comprehensive long-term strategies in the areas of business, media and public relations. In order to improve this situation, it is probably necessary to create a strategy bringing together local residents, businesses, NPOs, etc.
Since , the Kobe Community Forum has been held for of Kobe. residents to discuss city planning in English, and from this project has been commissioned to KIITO. in the city. It was created out of reflection over the fact that In the city of Kobe, some of the young and for- necessary information did not get to foreign resi- eign staff launched the project to promote plain dents when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Japanese in The project members have been occurred in Since then, it has come to be introducing their candid feelings through online used not only during disasters, but also in ordinary media, who are often caught between conflicting times to provide the administrative and daily-life voices of residents.
information of local governments to foreign resi- dents. The number of local governments which ing November 13, , by the Kobe City Office are using plain Japanese to promote exchange Yasanichi Promotion Team.
and interaction between Japanese and foreign residents has also been increasing in recent years. In August , the Immigration Services Agency and the Agency for Cultural Affairs formulated the Guidelines for Plain Japanese to Support Residents with the aim of promoting plain Japanese in the national and local governments and other public institutions, with a focus on the written language. We already have intercultural competencies, of diversity rooted in the communities where whether or not we are fluent in foreign languages.
we live and work. There is no panacea for every situation, but it is possible to improve our ability to understand and appreciate people who live and think differently 1.
than we do.
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The ICC-Index backgrounds, such as Koreans, Vietnamese, and Latin report reveals that while Kobe is highly regarded Americans and by local schools. intercultural city is defined as follows: Such policies aim to guarantee the economic rights of migrants, disregarding social, cultural or civic rights. Free hairy teens movies skinny teen sex models photo porno amateur