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Each time you quit Adobe Illustrator, the position of the panels and certain command settings are recorded in different preference вот ссылка. Box 1 demonstrates the default behavior of block elements; it takes up only as much height as the content contained within it requires.
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Below, the areas of the default workspace are described: A. Application bar B. Control panel C. Panels D. Tools panel E. Document window F. Status bar A. The Application bar across the top contains a workspace switcher, a menu bar Windows only, depending on screen resolution , and application controls.
The Control panel displays options for the currently selected object. Panels help you monitor and modify your work.
Certain panels are displayed by default, but you can add any panel by choosing it from the Window menu. Many panels have menus with panel-specific options. Panels can be grouped, stacked, docked, or free-floating. The Tools panel contains tools for creating and editing images, artwork, page elements, and more.
Related tools are grouped together. The Status bar appears at the lower-left edge of the Document window. It displays information and navigation controls. This is a program preference setting that allows you to choose a brightness setting from four preset levels or to specify a custom value. In this section, you will change the setting to see its effect, and then you will change it back to the program default. You can adjust the brightness of the user interface using set options in the Brightness menu.
You can drag the Brightness slider beneath the Brightness menu to the left or to the right to adjust the overall brightness using a custom value. The canvas is the area outside of the artboards in your document. Note: The Tools panel shown here and throughout the lesson has two columns.
You may see a single-column Tools panel, depending on your screen resolution and workspace. You’ll see additional selection tools. Drag to the right. Release the mouse button over the additional tool to select it. For more information, see “Keyboard Shortcuts” in Illustrator Help.
Any tool in the Tools panel that displays a small triangle contains additional tools that can be selected in this way.
Each click selects the next hidden tool in the hidden tool sequence. Drag the pointer over the arrow at the end of the hidden tools panel, and release the mouse button. This separates the tools from the Tools panel so that you can access them at all times. The tools return to the Tools panel. Next, you’ll learn how to resize and float the Tools panel. Click the double arrow again to expand to two columns. Just be careful not to double- click the X or the double arrow. The Tools panel is now floating in the workspace.
Drag the Tools panel so that it floats in the workspace. Click again to display the Tools panel in two columns. When the pointer reaches the left edge, a translucent blue border, called the drop zone, appears. Release the mouse button to fit the Tools panel neatly into the side of the workspace. You can click text that is underlined to display a related panel For example, click the underlined word Stroke to display the Stroke panel By default, the Control panel is docked at the top of the application window Windows or screen Mac OS ; however, you can dock it at the bottom, float it, or hide it altogether.
Once the Control panel is free-floating, you can drag the dark gray gripper bar that appears on the left edge of the Control panel to move it to the top or bottom of the workspace. This resets the Essentials workspace. You’ll learn more about resetting workspaces later in the lesson. When the pointer reaches the bottom of the Application window Windows or screen Mac OS , a blue line appears, indicating the drop zone in which it will be docked when you release the mouse button.
When the pointer reaches the bottom of the Application bar, a blue line appears indicating the drop zone. When you release the mouse button, the panel is docked. Working with panels Panels, which are located in the Window menu, give you quick access to many tools that make modifying artwork easier. By default, some panels are docked and appear as icons on the right side of the workspace.
Next, you’ll experiment with hiding, closing, and opening panels. Notice that the Swatches panel appears with two other panels— the Brushes panel and Symbols panel. They are all part of the same panel group. Click the Symbols panel tab to view the Symbols panel. Notice that a new panel group appears, and the panel group that contained the Swatches panel collapses.
A check mark to the left of the panel name indicates that the panel is already open and in front of other panels in its panel group. If you choose a panel name that is already selected in the Window menu, the panel and its group collapses. Click the double arrow at the top of the dock to expand the panels. Click the double arrow again to collapse the panels.
Use this method to show more than one panel group at a time. Your panels may look different when expanded, and thats okay. Click to expand. Click to collapse. The dock collapsed. To decrease the width, click and drag the left edge of the docked panels to the right until the text disappears.
Press Tab again to show them all again. Notice that the panel stays collapsed as an icon when it is free-floating. Click the double arrow in the Swatches panel title bar to expand the panel so you can see its contents. Pi 4th – 26th, It’s that tUV of year again! The farm comes to Ilf pumpkin festival is back. You can also move panels from one panel group to another. In this way you can create custom panel groups that contain the panels you use most often.
You can also right-click or Ctrl-click a docked panel tab and choose Close from the menu. Release the mouse button when you see a blue outline around the Brushes panel group. Click the Color Guide panel tab to make sure it’s selected.
Double-click the panel tab to reduce the size of the panel. Double-click the tab again to minimize the panel. This can also be done when a panel is free-floating not docked. Note: Many panels only require that you double-click the panel tab twice to return to the full- size view of the panel.
If you double-click one more time, the panel fully expands. Next, you will resize a panel group, which can make it easier to see more important panels. Drag the dividing line between the Symbols panel group and the Stroke panel group up to resize the group.
Note: You may not be able to drag the divider very far, depending on your screen size, screen resolution, and number of panels expanded. Panel groups can be docked, undocked, and arranged in either collapsed or expanded modes. Drag the title bar of the Align panel group to the docked panels on the right side of the workspace. Position the pointer below the group that the Symbols panel icon H is in so that a single blue line appears. Release the mouse button to create a new group in the dock.
Note: Ifyoudraga group into the dock and drop it into an existing group, the two groups merge. Reset the workspace and open the panel group to try again. Next, you will drag a panel from one group to another in the docked panels. A blue line appears between the Color panel icon and the Color Guide panel icon, outlining the Color panel group in blue. Arranging the panels in groups can help you work faster. A docked panel can also be collapsed and resized to conserve even more space.
Resetting and saving your workspace You can reset your panels and Tools panel to their default position, which youve been doing throughout this lesson. You can also save the position of panels so that you can easily access them at any time by creating a workspace. Next, you will create a workspace to access a group of commonly used panels. Click and drag the Pathfinder panel tab to the right side of the workspace. When the pointer approaches the left edge of the docked panels, a blue line appears.
Release the mouse button to dock the panel. Click the Close button X in the upper-right corner Windows or upper-left corner Mac OS to close the remaining panel group, which contains the Align and Transform panels. The workspace named Navigation is now saved with Illustrator until you remove it. Notice that the panels return to their default positions. Select the workspace name, and click the Delete Workspace button. In the New Workspace dialog box, name the workspace with the original name.
A message appears in the dialog box warning that you will overwrite an existing workspace with the same name if you click OK. Using panel menus Most panels have a panel menu in the upper-right corner. Next, you will change the display of the Symbols panel using its panel menu. This displays the symbol names, together with thumbnails. Because the options in the panel menu apply only to the active panel, only the Symbols panel view is affected.
Click the Symbols panel tab to hide the panel again. In addition to the panel menus, context-sensitive menus display commands relevant to the active tool, selection, or panel. The context-sensitive menu shown here is displayed when you right-click Windows or Ctrl-click Mac OS the artboard with nothing selected. The magnification level, which can range from 3. Using any of the viewing tools and commands affects only the display of the artwork, not the actual size of the artwork.
Each time you choose a Zoom option, the view of the artwork is resized to the closest preset zoom level. The preset zoom levels appear in a menu in the lower-left corner of the Document window, identified by a down arrow next to a percentage.
You can also use the View menu to fit the artwork for the active artboard to your screen, to fit all artboards into the view area, or to view artwork at actual size. You will see all artboards in the document displayed in the Document window. A reduced view of the active artboard is displayed in the window. The artwork is displayed at a higher magnification. The view is increased again, and you’ll notice that the area you clicked is magnified.
Next, you’ll reduce the view of the artwork. A minus sign – appears at the center of the Zoom tool pointer. Continue holding the key down for the next step. For a more controlled zoom, you can drag a marquee around a specific area of your artwork.
This magnifies only the selected area. When you see the marquee around the area you are dragging, release the mouse button. The marqueed area is now enlarged to fit the size of the Document window. Created with pure sunshine.
If you decide to use these shortcuts in Illustrator, you may want to turn off or change those keyboard shortcuts in the Mac OS System Preferences. The Zoom tool is used frequently during the editing process to enlarge and reduce the view of artwork. Because of this, Illustrator allows you to select it using the keyboard at any time without first deselecting any other tool you may be using.
Click or drag to zoom in on any area of the artwork, and then release the keys. Click the desired area to reduce the view of the artwork, and then release the keys. Scrolling through a document You can use the Hand tool to pan to different areas of a document. Using the Hand tool allows you to push the document around much like you would a piece of paper on your desk.
As you drag, the artwork moves with the hand. Note: The spacebar shortcut for the Hand tool does not work when the Type tool is active and your cursor is in text.
When you’re working with large or complex illustrations, you may want to view only the outlines, or wireframes, of objects in your artwork so that the screen doesn’t have to redraw the artwork each time you make a change. This is called Outline mode. This custom view was saved with the document. Name the view, and click OK; it is saved with the document.
Only the outlines of the objects are displayed. Use this view to find objects that might not be visible in Preview mode. This view is helpful for those in the print industry who need to see how inks interact when set to overprint.
You may not actually see much of a change in the logo when you change to this mode. Note: When switching between viewing modes, visual changes may not be readily apparent. This is a great way to create a multi-page document so that you can have collateral pieces like a brochure, a postcard, and a business card in the same document.
You can easily share content between pieces, create multi-page PDFs, and print multiple pages by creating multiple artboards. You can also add or remove artboards after the document is created using the Artboard tool in the Tools panel. Next, you will learn how to efficiently navigate a document with multiple artboards. Notice that there are two artboards in the document. The artboards in a document can be arranged in any order, orientation, or artboard size-they can even overlap.
Suppose that you want to create a four-page brochure. You can create different artboards for every page of the brochure, all with the same size and orientation. They can be arranged horizontally or vertically or in whatever way you like. The brochure. This command fits the currently active artboard in the window. The active artboard is identified in the Artboard Navigation menu in the lower-left corner of the Document window.
The back of the brochure appears in the Document window. Notice that zooming occurs on the currently active artboard. You can use these to navigate to the first D , previous m next 0, and last DD artboards. Note: Since there are only two artboards in this document, you could have also clicked the First button m in this step.
Another method for navigating multiple artboards is to use the Artboards panel. Next, you will open the Artboards panel and navigate the document. The Artboards panel lists all artboards in the document. This panel allows you to navigate between artboards, rename artboards, add or delete artboards, edit artboard settings, and more.
Next, you will focus on navigating the document using this panel. This fits Artboard 2 in the Document window. Note: Double-clicking the artboard name in the Artboards panel allows you to change the name of the artboard.
Clicking the artboard icon 0 to the right of the artboard name in the panel allows you to edit artboard options. Notice that when you double-click to navigate to an artboard, that artboard is fit in the Document window. You can specify the number of artboards for a document when you create it, and you can add and remove artboards at any time while working in a document. You can create artboards of different sizes, resize them with the Artboard tool, and position them on the screen — they can even overlap each other.
Artboard overview Artboards represent the regions that can contain printable artwork similar to pages in a program like Adobe InDesign. You can use artboards to crop areas for printing or placement purposes. Printable area B. Nonprintable area C. Edge of the page D. Artboard E. Bleed area F. Canvas A. Printable area is bounded by the innermost dotted lines and represents the portion of the page on which the selected printer can print. Many printers cannot print to the edge of the paper.
Don’t get confused by what is considered nonprintable. Nonprintable area is between the two sets of dotted lines representing any nonprintable margin of the page. This example shows the nonprintable area of an 8. The printable and nonprintable area is determined by the printer selected in the Print Options dialog box. Edge of the page is indicated by the outermost set of dotted lines. Artboard is bounded by solid lines and represents the entire region that can contain printable artwork.
Bleed area is the amount of artwork that falls outside of the printing bounding box, or outside the crop area and trim marks. You can include bleed in your artwork as a margin of error — to ensure that the ink is still printed to the edge of the page after the page is trimmed. Canvas is the area outside the artboard that extends to the edge of the ” square window.
Objects placed on the canvas are visible on-screen, but they do not print. This is useful when you need to see all artboards in the document in one window and edit content in any of those artboards in a zoomed in view.
It is free-floating in the workspace. As you drag the slider, the red box in the Navigator panel, called the proxy view area, becomes larger, indicating the area of the document that is being shown. Depending on the zoom percentage, you may or may not see the proxy view area yet, but you will.
Drag the proxy view area over the logo in the lower-right corner of the brochure cover. Note: Dragging the slider in the Navigator panel tends to jump the magnification to set values. To zoom more precisely, type in a value in the lower-left corner of the Navigator panel. This moves the box and displays a different area of the artwork in the Document window.
For example, you can change the color of the view box. Notice the logo on the canvas. Note: You may need to adjust the slider in the Navigator panel to see the logo in the proxy view area. Understanding rulers Rulers can help you accurately place and measure objects in your document and are displayed in each document by default.
Horizontal and vertical rulers appear at the top and left sides of each Document window. The place where 0 appears on each ruler is called the ruler origin. Next, you will explore the rulers by turning them on and off and noticing where the ruler origin is located on each artboard. Notice that the 0 for the horizontal ruler is aligned with the left edge of the first artboard, and the 0 for the vertical ruler on the left side of the Document window is aligned with the top edge of the artboard.
Arranging multiple documents When you open more than one Illustrator file, the Document windows are tabbed. You can arrange the open documents in other ways, such as side by side, so that you can easily compare or drag items from one document to another. You can also use the Arrange Documents window to quickly display your open documents in a variety of configurations. Next, you will open several documents. Click Open to open both files at once. You should now have three Illustrator files open: brochure.
Each file has its own tab at the top of the Document window. These documents are considered a group of Document windows. You can create document groups to loosely associate files while they are open. This can be very useful if you use the document shortcuts to navigate to the next or previous document. Note: Your tabs may be in a slightly different order. Be careful to drag directly to the right.
Otherwise, you could undock the Document window and create a new group. Note: Your documents may be tiled in a different order. These three documents are versions of marketing pieces.
To see all of them at one time, you can arrange the Document windows by cascading the windows or tiling them. Cascading allows you to cascade stack different document groups and is discussed further in the next section. Tiling shows multiple Document windows at one time, in various arrangements. Next, you will tile the open documents so that you can see them all at one time.
Then, click the green button in the upper-left corner of the Application window so that the it fits as well as possible. Mac OS users can use the Application frame to group all the workspace elements in a single, integrated window, similar to working in Windows. If you move or resize the Application frame, the elements respond to each other so that they don’t overlap. This shows all three Document windows arranged in a pattern.
Also, make sure that artboard 1 is showing for each document in the Document window. With documents tiled, you can drag the dividing lines between each of the Document windows to reveal more or less of a particular document. You can also drag objects between documents to copy them from one document to another. This indicates that the file needs to be saved. Depending on your operating system, the pointer may look different.
To change the arrangement of the tiled windows, it’s possible to drag document tabs to new positions. However, it’s easier to use the Arrange Documents window to quickly arrange open documents in a variety of configurations. Also, depending on the resolution of your screen, the Windows menus may appear in the Application bar. Click the 2-Up vertical button E0 in the Arrange Documents window.
Notice that two of the documents appear as tabs in one of the tiled areas. This returns the two documents to tabs in the same group. Keep the brochure. Exploring document groups By default, open documents in Illustrator are arranged as tabs in a single group of windows. You can create multiple groups of files for easier navigation and temporarily associate files together.
This can be helpful if you are working on a large project that requires you to create and edit multiple pieces. Grouping documents lets you float the groups so that they are separate from the application window Windows or screen Mac OS.
Next, you will create and work with two groups of files. Welcome and entertain them all. Treat each guest honorably. The dark thought, the shame, the malice, meet them at the door laughing, and invite them in. Be grateful for whoever comes, because each has been sent as a guide from beyond. Load more similar PDF files. Feel free to use the jumpstart method for all lessons, if you prefer.
Select the Local Info category. For a more complete description of how to set up a site in Dreamweaver, see Lesson 4. Remember, if you use the jumpstart method for all lessons, you may not end up with a complete set of site iles in any individual folder when you are inished. For this book the Designer workspace is recommended.
If it is not displayed, use the pop-up menu in the Application bar to choose it. Most of the igures in this book show the Designer workspace. When you inish the lessons in this book, experiment with various workspaces to ind the one that you prefer. Minor diferences exist between the two versions, mostly due to platform-speciic issues out of the control of the program. Most of these are simply diferences in keyboard shortcuts, how dialog boxes are displayed, and how buttons are named.
Screen shots may alternate between platforms throughout the book. Where speciic commands difer, they are noted within the text. For additional information resources, such as tips, techniques, and the latest prod- uct information, visit www.
Checking for updates Adobe periodically provides software updates. You can obtain these updates using Adobe Updater if you have an active Internet connection. Only the commands and options used in the lessons are explained in this book. For comprehensive information about program features and tutorials, please refer to these resources: Adobe Community Help: Community Help brings together active Adobe product users, Adobe product team members, authors, and experts to give you the most useful, relevant, and up-to-date information about Adobe products.
Adobe content is updated based on community feedback and contributions. You can add comments to content and forums including links to web content , publish your own content using Community Publishing, or contribute Cookbook recipes.
Find out how to contribute at www. See community. Adobe Forums: forums. Adobe TV: tv. Adobe Design Center: www. Adobe Developer Connection: www. Resources for educators: www. Find solutions for education at all levels, including free curricula that use an integrated approach to teaching Adobe software and can be used to prepare for the Adobe Certiied Associate exams.
Adobe Dreamweaver CS6 product home page: www. You can use Adobe certiication as a catalyst for getting a raise, inding a job, or promoting your expertise. If you are an ACE-level instructor, the Adobe Certiied Instructor program takes your skills to the next level and gives you access to a wide range of Adobe resources. Adobe Authorized Training Centers ofer instructor-led courses and training on Adobe products, employing only Adobe Certiied Instructors.
A directory of AATCs is available at partners. For information on the Adobe Certiied programs, visit www. Dreamweaver ofers something for everyone.
Take a moment to familiarize yourself with the names of these components. Dreamweaver provides much of its power via dockable panels and toolbars you can display or hide and arrange in innumerable combinations to create your ideal workspace. In the lesson01 folder, choose start-here.
Click Open. Design view Design view focuses the Dreamweaver workspace on its WYSIWYG editor, which provides a close, but not perfect, depiction of the webpage as it would appear in a browser. To activate Design view, click the Design view button in the Document toolbar.
Design view Code view Code view focuses the Dreamweaver workspace exclusively on the HTML code and a variety of code-editing productivity tools. To access Code view, click the Code view button in the Document toolbar. Changes made in either window update in the other instantly.
To access Split view, click the Split view button in the Document toolbar. To take advantage of the expanded width of the new lat-panel displays, Dreamweaver splits the workspace vertically, by default.
Split view You can also split the screen horizontally by disabling the vertical split in the view menu. You can display, hide, arrange, and dock panels at will around the screen. You can even move them to a second or third video display if you desire. Standard panel grouping he Window menu lists all the available panels. If you do not see a speciic panel on the screen, choose it from the Window menu.
A check mark appears in the menu to indicate that the panel is open. Occasionally, one panel may lie behind another on the screen and be diicult to locate. In such situations, simply choose the desired panel in the Window menu and it will rise to the top of the stack. To minimize a panel, double- click the tab containing the panel name. To expand the panel, double-click the tab again. Minimizing one panel in a stack using its tab To recover more screen real estate, you can minimize panel groups or stacks down to icons by double-clicking the title bar.
You can also minimize the panels to icons by clicking the double arrow icon in the panel title bar. When panels are minimized to icons, you access any of the individual panels by clicking its icon or button.
Minimizing sequence to icons Floating A panel grouped with other panels can be loated separately. To loat a panel, drag it from the group by its tab. Dragging a tab to change its position To reposition panels, groups, and stacks in the workspace, simply drag them by the title bar.
Dragging a whole panel group or stack to a new position Grouping, stacking, and docking You can create custom groups by dragging one panel into another. Release the mouse button to create the new group. To stack panels, drag the desired tab to the top or bottom of another panel. When you see the blue drop zone appear, release the mouse button. Creating panel stacks Floating panels can be docked to the right, left, or bottom of the Dreamweaver workspace. To dock a panel, group, or stack, drag its title bar to the edge on which you wish to dock.
Dreamweaver CS6 includes 11 prebuilt workspaces. To access these workspaces, choose them from the Workspace menu located in the Application bar.
Coder workspace he Designer workspace provides the optimum environment for visual designers. You will explore the capabilities of these toolbars in later exercises. You can store these conigura- tions in a custom workspace of your own naming. To save a custom workspace, create your desired coniguration, choose New Workspace from the Workspace menu in the Application bar, and then give it a custom name.
Keyboard shortcuts are loaded and preserved independent of custom workspaces. Create it yourself. Click OK. Note that the Save All command does not have an existing shortcut, although you will use this command frequently in Dreamweaver. Note the error message indicating that the keyboard combination you chose is already assigned to a command. You have created your own keyboard shortcut—one you will use in upcoming lessons.
When the HTML button is selected, you can apply heading or paragraph tags, as well as bold, italics, bullets, numbers, and indenting, among other formatting and attributes. CSS Property inspector Image properties Select an image in a webpage to access the image-based attributes and formatting control of the Property inspector.
Image Property inspector table properties To access table properties, insert your cursor in a table and then click the table tag selector at the bottom of the document window. It is the structure and substance of the Internet, although it is usually unseen except by the web designer. Without it, the web would not exist. Dreamweaver has many features that help you access, create, and edit HTML code quickly and efectively. Most people confuse the program with the technology.
Print designers are used to working with iles ending with. Designers have learned over time that opening these ile formats in a diferent program may produce unacceptable results or even damage the ile. On the other hand, the goal of the web designer is to create a webpage for display in a browser.
In fact, it is a nonproprietary, plain-text language that can be edited in any text editor, in any operating system, and on any computer. Dreamweaver is an HTML editor at its core, although it is much more than this. Where did htmL begin? He intended the technology as a means for sharing technical papers and information via the ledgling Internet that existed at the time.
He shared his HTML and browser inventions openly as an attempt to get the scien- tiic community and others to adopt it and engage in the development themselves. At the time of this writing, HTML is at version 4. It consists of around 90 tags, such as html, head, body, h1, p, and so on.
When two matching tags appear this way, they are referred to as an element. Some elements are used to create page structures, others to format text, and yet others to enable interactivity and programmability.
Even though Dreamweaver obviates the need for writing most of the code manually, the ability to read and interpret HTML code is still a recommended skill for any burgeoning web designer. And sometimes, writing the code by hand is the only way to ind an error in your webpage.
Tags are enclosed within angle brackets. Empty tags, like the horizontal rule, can be written in an abbreviated fashion, as shown above. Like an iceberg, most of the content of the actual webpage remains out of sight. Navigate to the desktop, select irstpage. Congratulations, you just created your irst webpage. Finish by typing and easy!
In fact, you could add hundreds of paragraph returns between the lines and dozens of spaces between each word, and the browser display would be no diferent. By inserting a tag here and there, you can easily create the desired text display. Entities are entered into the code using the standard diferently than tags. For example, the method for inserting a nonbreaking key keyboard. Switch to the browser and reload or refresh the page display.
Because the tags and entities were added, the browser can display the desired paragraph structure and spacing. Besides creating paragraph structures and creating white space as demonstrated earlier, they can impart basic text formatting, as well as identify the relative importance of the page content.
Heading tags are automatically formatted in bold and often at a larger relative size. In this exercise, you will add a heading tag to the irst line: 1 Switch back to the text editor. Note how the text changed. It is now larger and formatted in boldface. Web designers use heading tags to identify the importance of speciic content and to help improve their site rankings on Google, Yahoo, and other search engines.
A typical use of inline code would be to apply bold or italic styling to a word or to a portion of a paragraph. In this exercise, you will apply inline formatting: 1 Switch back to the text editor. Notice how 3 Save the ile. A webpage can exist without this section, but adding any advanced functionality to this page without one would be diicult.
Did you notice what changed? It may not be obvious at irst. Look at the title bar of the browser window. A well-titled page could be ranked higher than one with a bad title or one with none at all. Keep your titles short but meaningful. Click Create. A new document window opens in Dreamweaver.
Dreamweaver makes it a simple matter to format the irst line as a heading 1. Note how Dreamweaver automatically opens a drop-down list of compatible code elements. Tired of hand-coding yet? Dreamweaver ofers multiple ways to format your content. When you reached for the B and I buttons in step 14, were they missing? When you make changes in Code view, the Property inspector occasionally needs to be refreshed before you can access the formatting commands featured there.
Simply click the Refresh button, and the formatting commands will reappear. Only two more tasks remain before your new page is complete. You could select the text within the code window and enter a new title, or you could change it using another built-in feature. Note that the new title text appears in the code, replacing the original content. Navigate to the desktop. Name the ile secondpage, and click Save.
Dreamweaver adds the proper extension. You have just completed two webpages—one by hand and the other using Dreamweaver. In both cases, you can see how HTML played a central role in the whole process. To learn more about this technology, go to www.
Tags can create structures, apply formatting, identify logical content, or generate interactivity. Tags that create stand-alone structures are called block elements; the ones that perform their work within the body of another tag are called inline elements. To get the most out of Dreamweaver and your webpages, it helps to understand the nature of these elements and how they are used.
Remember, some tags can serve multiple purposes. Table 2. Creates a hyperlink. Used extensively to simulate columnar layouts. Adds semantic emphasis. Creates bold headings.
Defines a numbered list. Creates a stand-alone paragraph. Displays as bold by default. Designates a table cell. Defines a bulleted list. So, what does that mean for current or up-and-coming web designers? Not much—yet. Websites and their developers change and adapt to current technologies and market realities quickly, but the underlying technologies progress at a more glacial pace.
Browser manufacturers are already supporting many of the new features of HTML5 today. Early adopters will attract developers and users who are interested in the latest and greatest, which means that older, non-HTML5-compliant brows- ers will be abandoned as these new features are implemented in the majority of popular websites.
In any case, backward-compatibility to HTML 4. HTML 4. Some of these elements have been deprecated or removed altogether, and new ones have been adopted or proposed. Many of the changes to the list revolve around supporting new technologies or dif- ferent types of content models. Some changes simply relect customs or techniques that have been popularized within the developer community since the previous version of HTML was adopted.
Other changes simplify the way code is created and make it easier to write and faster to disseminate. Almost 30 old tags have been deprecated, which means HTML5 features nearly 50 new elements in total.
Take a few moments to familiarize yourself with these tags and their descriptions. Multiple sources can be defined for browsers that do not support the default resource.
It is a move- ment that has important ramiications for the future and usability of HTML and for the interoperability of websites on the Internet. At the moment, each webpage stands alone on the web. Search engines do their best to index the content that appears on every site, but much of it is lost because of the nature and structure of old HTML code. HTML was initially designed as a presentation language. In other words, it was intended to display technical documents in a browser in a readable and predict- able manner.
Was it a title or merely a subheading? HTML5 has added a signiicant number of new tags to help us add meaning to our markup. If you are new to web design, this transition will be painless, because you have nothing to relearn and no bad habits to break.
If you already have experience building webpages and applications, this book will guide you safely through some of these waters and introduce the new technologies and techniques in a logical and straightforward way. Valid HTML 4 code will remain valid for the foreseeable future. HTML5 was intended to make your task easier by allowing you to do more, with less work. To see the complete list of HTML5 elements, check out www.
To learn more about W3C, check out www. An inline element can exist within another element. The language and syntax is complex, powerful, and end- lessly adaptable; it takes time and dedication to learn and years to master.
HTML was never intended to be a design medium. Other than bold and italic, version 1. Designers resorted to various tricks to produce the desired results. For example, they used HTML tables to simu- late multicolumn and complex layouts for text and graphics, and they used images when they wanted to display typefaces other than Times or Helvetica.
Using the expanded table mode in Dreamweaver top , you can see how this webpage relies on tables and images to produce the inal design bottom. Using CSS lets you strip the HTML code down to its essential content and structure and then apply the formatting separately, so you can more easily tailor the webpage to spe- ciic applications.
Click in the Design view window to update the display. Make a mistake, like typing greeen or geen, and the browser will ignore the color formatting altogether. Note that the code contains two color: blue; attributes. In Design view, all the heading elements display in green. In Design view, the paragraph elements have changed to green.
So even if you do nothing, the text will already be formatted in a certain way. One of the essential tasks in mastering CSS is learning and understanding these defaults. If necessary, select Design view to preview the contents of the ile. Each element exhibits basic styling for traits such as size, font, and spacing, among others. A quick look will tell you that there is no obvious styling information in the ile, but the text still displays diferent kinds of formatting.
So where does it come from? And what are the settings? HTML elements draw characteristics from multiple sources. You can ind a default style sheet at www. To save time and give you a bit of a head start, the following table pulls together some of the most common defaults. Body text Outside of a table cell, text aligns to the left and starts at the top of the page.
This default is not honored by all browsers. Fonts Text color is black. Default typeface and font is specified and supplied by the browser or by browser preferences specified by the manufacturer and then by the user.
Margins Spacing external to the element box. Many HTML elements feature some form of margin spacing. Padding Spacing between the box border and the content. According to the default style sheet, no element features default padding. Unfortunately, even diferent versions identify the browsers that visitors in your of the same browser can produce wide target audience use.
IE Other 0. In January , the W3C published statistics, shown in the image above, identifying the most popular browsers. Although this chart shows the basic breakdown in the browser world, it obscures the fact that multiple versions of each browser are still being used.
To make matters more complicated, although these statistics are valid for the Internet overall, the statistics for your own site may vary wildly. Css box model he browser normally reads the HTML code, interprets its structure and format- ting, and then displays the webpage. It imposes an imaginary box around each element and then enables you to format almost every aspect of how that box and its contents are displayed.
The box model is a programmatic construct imposed by CSS that enables you to format, or redeine, the default settings of any HTML element. In most instances these boxes are invisible, and although CSS gives you the ability to format them, it does not require you to do so.
Open boxmodel. Content vs. Here is identical HTML content, side by side. Formatting text You can apply CSS formatting in three ways: inline, embedded in an internal style sheet , or linked via an external style sheet. A CSS formatting instruction is called a rule. A rule consists of two parts—a selector and one or more declarations.
Applying a CSS rule is not a simple matter of selecting some text and applying a paragraph or character style, as in Adobe InDesign or Adobe Illustrator. CSS rules can afect single words, paragraphs of text, or combinations of text and objects.
A single rule can afect an entire page. A rule can be speciied to begin and end abruptly, or to format content continuously until changed by a subsequent rule. The way the selector is written HTML element determines how the styling is applied and Multiple how the rules interact with one another.
Cascade theory he cascade theory describes how the order and placement of rules in the style sheet or on the page afects the application of styling. In other words, if two rules conlict, which one wins out? Note that the code contains two CSS rules that are identical except that they apply diferent colors: red or blue. Both rules want to format the same elements, but only one will be honored. Obviously, the second rule won. Because the second rule is the last one declared, which makes it the closest one to the actual content.
You have switched the order of the rules. Both proximity and the order in which rules appear within the markup are powerful factors in how CSS is applied.
When you try to determine which CSS rule will be honored and which formatting will be applied, browsers typically use the following order of hierarchy, with 3 being the most powerful. Browser defaults. If both are present, the one declared last supersedes the earlier entry in conlicts.
Inline styles within the HTML element itself. Pearson uses appropriate physical, administrative and technical security measures to protect personal information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure.
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